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Disorders in the development of tomatoes cause various external changes. One of the most pressing questions when growing this crop is why tomato leaves curl like a boat. The reason may be a violation of the rules for watering and pinching, the spread of diseases and pests.
Causes of leaf curling
Tomatoes need abundant watering. Violation of the regimen of moisture introduction has a negative effect on the development of plants.
Immediately after planting in a permanent place, the tomatoes are well watered. The next procedure is performed after 10 days. It is enough to water the plants 1-2 times a week, depending on the climatic conditions.
Important! The intensity of watering increases during the period of ovary formation and fruiting of tomatoes.
With insufficient watering, the leaves curl inward to keep moisture from evaporating. In this case, you need to water the plantings in small portions, but often enough.
Overflow also leads to deformation of plant leaves. With an excess of moisture, the leaves curl upside down. Tomatoes are able to withstand short-term drought. If this period is prolonged, then the leaves begin to curl.
Advice! The morning or evening period is selected for watering.
Watering in direct sunlight is not allowed. Moisture should not get on the green mass of plants.
Water the tomatoes with warm water. For this, containers with liquid are placed in the sun or heated water is added immediately before the procedure.
Another factor that leads to curling of tomato leaves is a violation of the temperature regime.
The optimal temperature regime for tomatoes is + 20-22 ° С during the daytime. At night, the ambient temperature should be in the range from +16 to + 18 ° С.
If the temperature rises to + 30 ° C, then the flowering of tomatoes stops and the ovary falls off. If the air warms up to + 40 ° С, then the plants die.
In hot weather, leaf curling is observed on plantings not only in the greenhouse, but also in the open field. At elevated temperatures, the breakdown of trace elements necessary for the development of tomatoes is accelerated. As a result, the plant does not absorb them, which leads to starvation.
Advice! Airing the greenhouse will help reduce the temperature.
Tomatoes tolerate drafts well, therefore, when grown in greenhouses, windows and vents must be provided. If there is no possibility of ventilation, then the greenhouse can be covered with a cloth to create shady areas or the walls can be whitewashed with lime.
Important! Mulching is an effective way to reduce temperatures. Light-colored materials (straw, hay, non-woven fabric) reflect sunlight and prevent overheating of plant roots.
Additionally, you can spray the tomatoes with a urea solution. 1.5 tbsp is enough for a bucket of water. l. of this substance. After three days, the plants are treated with a potassium permanganate solution.
Excess or lack of fertilizer
Fertilization is a prerequisite for a good harvest. An excess of nutrients negatively affects the development of plants.
Most often, tomatoes are overfed with nitrogen substances that are contained in organic fertilizers (manure, poultry droppings). As a result, the green mass of plants grows intensively, the ovary does not form, potassium and phosphorus are absorbed worse.
Important! Excess nitrogen can be compensated for by feeding on the basis of potassium monophosphate or copper sulfate.
In plants, leaves are curled with an excess of the following elements:
- zinc (the edges of the leaf plate are bent, and the lower part of the bush becomes purple);
- manganese (the tops wrinkle and acquire a bright green tint).
A change in the condition of tomato leaves is indicated by a lack of fertilizer. If the foliage curls upward, the plants require more calcium. With a lack of this element, the development of tomatoes slows down, and apical rot appears on the fruits.
The lack of calcium is compensated by introducing calcium nitrate to the plants. Consumption of the substance is 20 g per bucket of water. 0.1 kg of ash and 10 g of urea can be added to the solution.
With phosphorus starvation, the foliage curls and takes on a grayish tint. To remedy the situation, a solution is prepared containing 0.1 kg of superphosphate per bucket of water.
Lack of pinning
Grazing is the removal of lateral shoots, on which leaves and fruits grow over time. If you leave the stepsons, then the tomatoes begin to branch. As a result, the planting becomes too dense, and the plant directs its forces to form foliage.
As a result of improper pinching, too small fruits are formed. In the absence of this procedure, the leaves of the tomatoes curl. Therefore, the timely removal of excess shoots allows you to reduce the load on the plants.
Advice! The stepsons are removed after they grow 5 cm.
Removing small shoots does not harm the plants. If you remove full-fledged leaves, then the yield of tomatoes is lost. The procedure is carried out no more than twice a week in sunny weather. If the day is cloudy, then the cut is treated with wood ash.
Plantings that are too dense often lack nutrients or moisture. As a result, the leaves of the tomato, which have not received the required amount of nutrition, begin to curl.
Diseases of tomatoes
Rolling of tomato leaves is observed with the spread of diseases. A beneficial environment for the development of diseases is dense planting of plants, excessive moisture, violation of the rules of crop rotation and fertilization. When the first signs of disease appear, appropriate measures are taken.
The disease affects plants growing outdoors. As a result, the presentation of the fruit is lost. In tomatoes affected by the stolbur, the leaves are deformed. The upper shoots turn purple or pinkish, while the lower leaves turn yellow.
Important! Stolbur develops during periods of drought and hot weather.
Disease carriers are leafhoppers, therefore, the main control measures are aimed at their destruction. Near plantings, it is necessary to exclude the spread of weeds, which become a refuge for insects.
Planting sunflowers or corn will help protect tomatoes from the spread of leafhoppers. For the prevention of disease, the plants are sprayed with the preparations "Aktara", "Confidor", "Fufanon".
An effective remedy for stolbur is "Fitoplasmin". This is the only effective drug aimed at combating the disease. On its basis, a solution is prepared for watering or spraying tomatoes.
If tomato leaves wilt and curl upward, it can be a symptom of bacterial cancer. Brown and red sores appear on young shoots. The wilting of tomatoes occurs from the bottom. At first, the lesion covers the leaves of the plants, which become brown and dry out.
If you do not take the necessary measures, then the disease will pass to the fruit. Its signs are small flat spots concentrated around the peduncle. Over time, the spots turn yellow and turn into cracks.
Important! Bacterial cancer spreads through seeds, soil, plant debris.
The development of the disease is provoked by high humidity and the presence of injuries in plants. Therefore, in a greenhouse with tomatoes, ventilation must be carried out, the soil is disinfected before planting, the rules of crop rotation are observed.
Before planting the roots of tomatoes in the ground, the "Fitolavin" solution is lowered for 2 hours. If the disease has already manifested itself, then the plants are sprayed with Planriz. Copper sulfate, copper oxychloride, Bordeaux liquid are used against bacterial cancer.
Pests cause serious damage to plants because they feed on their sap. As a result, tomatoes become depressed, which negatively affects their appearance and yield. If the leaves of tomatoes curl, this indicates the spread of a whitefly, aphid or spider mite.
The whitefly is a white butterfly that lives on the lower leaves of tomatoes. Its effect leads to the drying of the leaves, on the surface of which a black bloom appears.
Before planting tomatoes, the greenhouse is fumigated with sulfur candles. The procedure is carried out twice a year in spring and autumn, when no plants are planted.
When a whitefly is detected, the following methods are used:
- treatment with chemicals "Fufanon" and "Mospilan";
- additional use of yarrow infusion and soap solution for leaf processing of plants.
Only repeated processing will help get rid of insects. The use of chemicals is discontinued 3 weeks before harvest.
Work should be carried out in cloudy weather in the absence of rain and wind. For prevention, folk remedies are used: an infusion of garlic or dandelions.
The impact of aphids on tomatoes is expressed in foliage curling and the appearance of visible damage on it.
Chemical preparations "Aktara", "Iskra", "Proteus" help to get rid of aphids on plants. During processing, you must observe safety measures and protect the skin, eyes and respiratory organs with special means.
Important! The procedure is performed three times with an interval of 10 days.
In addition to chemicals, folk methods are used. A decoction based on odorous plants (wormwood or celandine) repels insects.
The product is used by spraying tomatoes. If you add laundry soap to the solution, then the liquid will stay on the sheet plate longer.
To remove aphids, an ash solution is used. To prepare it, you need a bucket of water and a glass of wood ash. The tool is insisted for two days, after which the tomatoes are sprayed.
Another reason why the leaves curl in tomatoes is the spread of spider mites. This pest appears in the greenhouse where tomatoes grow. It can be identified by twisted and dried leaves of plants, a change in the color of the tops, the appearance of a cobweb.
Chemicals used to treat the greenhouse, soil and plants help get rid of the pest. For tomatoes, preparations are used "Borneo", "Flumite", "Oberon".
Advice! The last use of chemicals should take place 3 weeks before harvesting.
The biological way of fighting is to plant phytophages that destroy the spider mite. This method is safe for tomatoes and humans and allows you to get rid of the pest in a short time.
To prevent the spread of spider mites, the greenhouse, plants and soil are disinfected. A popular method of pest control is the use of an infusion of henbane, dandelions, onions or garlic.
If the leaves of tomatoes are curled, then you need to pay attention to the conditions in which the plants are located. If necessary, the watering intensity increases or decreases, pinching is performed. If diseases or pests are detected, measures are taken to get rid of them.