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Japanese pine is a tree or shrub, belongs to the pine family, the class of conifers. The plant is able to maintain vital activity from 1 to 6 centuries.
Description of Japanese pine
The tree is characterized by rapid growth. The height of the Japanese pine Negishi is 35-75 m, the diameter of the trunk reaches 4 m. In wetlands, the growth of the tree does not exceed 100 cm. There are single-stemmed and multi-stemmed pine species. The bark of the tree is smooth, becoming scaly over time.
Japanese pine is a light-loving representative of conifers. The first flowers appear in the last month of spring, but they are hardly noticeable.
At the end of the process, cones of various shapes and colors, depending on the variety, are formed. They are divided into male and female. The color range of shoots is varied, there are trees with yellow, purple or brick-red, brown cones.
Male modified shoots are distinguished by a cylindrical-ellipsoidal shape, up to 15 cm long. Female cones are more rounded, slightly flattened, 4-8 cm long.
There are two types of Japanese pine seeds: winged and wingless.
Instead of the usual foliage, the tree forms long coniferous shoots in the form of needles. They are soft, thin, slightly curved at the ends, capable of being viable for up to 3 years. Young needles have a greenish tint, which eventually turns into gray-blue.
Important! According to the description, pine is characterized by high frost resistance: up to - 34 ° C, undemanding to living conditions, successfully grows in polluted cities.
Japanese pine varieties
There are more than 30 types of Japanese pine, they differ not only in appearance, but also in life expectancy, planting and care features.
Common varieties of Japanese pine:
- Blauer Engel: A coniferous representative with a loose, spreading crown, which can be pressed down to the desired shape. The tree grows up to 10 cm per year, forming decorative blue needles. The variety reacts favorably to feeding, delighting the gardener with an abundant amount of light brown cones. The Blauer Engel species is undemanding to the composition of the soil, frost-resistant, but grows poorly in wetlands, therefore, when planting a plant, preference should be given to sunny areas.
- Glauca: mature plant, 10-12 m in height, crown reaches 3-3.5 m in diameter. The tree grows rapidly, adding 18-20 cm in height annually. The shape of the variety is conical, it is slightly asymmetric. The needles of the tree are very dense, with a rich silver-blue hue, presented in the form of paired bunches. The growth and livelihoods of Glauca pine are favorably influenced by fertile land, well-drained and loose. With proper care, planting in the sand is also possible. It is recommended to grow pine in lighted areas.
- Negishi: highly decorative wood, common in Japan. According to the description, the Negishi pine has fluffy, green-blue needles, forming a beautiful dense crown. The variety grows slowly, often not exceeding 2-3 m. Pine prefers sunny places, undemanding to the soil, but poorly tolerates alkaline soils. The frost resistance of the Negishi variety is average; it grows successfully in urban polluted conditions.
- Tempelhof: A dwarf tree characterized by twisted brush-like shoots with blue needles. In a year, the variety adds 15-20 cm in growth, young branches have a bluish tint. The shape of the crown is close to round, loose. In 10 years, the plant reaches 2-3 m in height, tolerates frosts well down to -30 ° C, and is not suitable for growing in arid southern regions.
- Hagoromo: miniature Japanese pine, reaching a height of no more than 30-40 cm (crown diameter 0.5 m). The variety is characterized by a very slow growth, no more than 2-3 cm per year. The branches are short and thin, directed upward at an angle from the center of the plant, forming an asymmetrical wide crown. The needles of the Hagoromo variety are bright green. The plant tolerates low temperatures well, grows successfully both in sunny and shaded areas, and prefers moist and fertile soils.
Important! Natural pine species cannot withstand frosts above -28 ° C, while artificially bred varieties are suitable for growing at lower temperatures.
Japanese pine in landscape design
Due to its frost resistance and unpretentiousness, the tree is often used to decorate the garden. Landscaping using Japanese pine is laconic, many varieties can form a crown, which is successfully used to implement creative ideas of designers.
They use Japanese pine to decorate alpine hills, slopes, forest edges, and place it as a single composition on lawns.
Glauca and Hagoromo varieties are used to decorate the coastal area of the reservoir, rocky garden or walking path.
How to grow Japanese pine from seeds
Seed material is purchased in stores or obtained independently. The ripening process of cones is 2-3 years, after the appearance of a pyramidal thickening on them, the seeds are collected and transferred to a container.
For each variety, the seed may differ not only in appearance, but also in the method of planting, therefore it is recommended to study the characteristics of the variety. It must be stored in a cool place, wrapped in a cloth or placed in a container.
Before planting Japanese pine seeds, it is important to do proper processing. To do this, they are placed in water for germination for several days. Viable seeds swell, and floating samples are unsuitable for growing, so they are removed.
At the end of the procedure, the seed is packed in a bag and transferred to the shelf of the refrigerating chamber, where the temperature is up to + 4 ° C. Over the course of 14 days, the container with the seeds is gradually moved upward, and then for another 2 weeks it is transferred in the reverse order.
Important! Before planting, the germinated seed is sprayed with fungicidal agents.
Preparation of soil and planting capacity
Japanese pine from seeds at home is grown in containers. They are harvested independently or purchased in stores. It is necessary to make sure that the container is intact, whether it has holes, then rinse and dry thoroughly.
As a soil, it is recommended to purchase a specialized substrate or use soil from a mixture of clay granulate and humus (in a ratio of 3: 1). The earth must be disinfected by spilling it with a solution of potassium permanganate or calcining it in an oven at 100 ° C.
How to plant Japanese pine seeds
The best time to grow Japanese pine is in the last winter month or early March.
The soil is poured into the prepared container and furrows are made in it and the seeds are placed at intervals of 2-3 cm. A thin layer of sand must be poured over them and spilled with water. At the end of the procedure, the container is covered with glass.
It is important to ventilate the container with Japanese pine seeds daily. When mold forms, it is removed, the soil is treated with fungicidal agents.
After the sprouts appear, the glass is removed, the box is transferred to a sunny place, controlling the moisture content of the soil. Top dressing at this stage of growing is not required.
Planting and caring for Japanese pine in the open field
The tree is distinguished by its hardiness to weather conditions, but it is recommended to take into account varietal characteristics. To grow Japanese white pine, moist but well-drained soil is preferred. For this, expanded clay or crushed brick is introduced into the soil.
Attention! The optimal time for planting pine lasts from late April to September. The most viable are 3-5-year-old seedlings.
Seedling and planting plot preparation
Before transplanting, the soil is carefully dug up, a planting hole is formed 1 m deep, and nitrogen fertilizer is introduced into it. It is recommended to use a mixture of soil, turf, clay and fine sand (2: 2: 1) as a backfill. Stones or broken brick are laid out at the bottom of the pit.
Semi-dwarf and dwarf varieties are placed at a distance of 1.5 m from each other, the gap between tall species is at least 4 m.
The seedling is watered abundantly to make it easier to remove it from the container along with the soil, then transferred to the pit and covered with earth.
Watering and feeding
Moistening the soil must be done immediately after planting Japanese pine. Further, watering is carried out taking into account the weather conditions: on hot days, the plant needs more moisture. On average, soil irrigation is carried out every 7 days.
In spring and summer, in the absence of precipitation, it is recommended to wash the needles in the morning or evening hours, washing away dust and dirt. To do this, sprinkle with warm water.
Be sure to include fertilizing the soil in the care of the Japanese white pine. Mature trees independently provide themselves with all the necessary substances, and young seedlings are fed with the necessary substances for 2 years from the moment of transfer to the soil.
To do this, complex fertilizing is introduced into the trunk circle twice a year, calculating according to the scheme: 40 g per 1 sq. m.
Mulching and loosening
Due to the drainage system, soil and unpretentiousness of the plant, loosening of the soil may not be carried out. This is especially true when growing Japanese pine on rocky soil.
When planting a seedling in a fertile land, loosening is carried out after watering. Fallen needles are used as mulch for the plant.
Damaged or dry shoots are removed from Japanese pine all year round. Preventive pruning is carried out in the spring, after the formation of young branches (pine buds).
To form the crown of the seedling, pinch the buds. This procedure provokes branching of the tree, slowing down its growth. If it is necessary to grow a miniature plant, the buds are shortened by 2/3.
Preparing for winter
Young Japanese pine seedlings need shelter to prevent frost death. For this, the crown and roots are covered with spruce branches, which are harvested only in April. The use of covers or burlap is allowed. It is not recommended to cover young trees with a film: there is a high risk of condensation, which will lead to premature death of the plant.
You can grow Japanese pine not only from seeds, but also by cuttings, by grafting.
For harvesting cuttings in the fall on a cloudy day, they are not cut, but torn off with a piece of wood and bark, processed and placed in a container for rooting.
Vaccination as a breeding procedure is rarely used. It is important to use a 4-5 year old plant as a rootstock. The scion should be 1-3 years old. The needles are removed from the cutting, leaving only the buds on the upper part. Long shoots are cut from the stock.
Vaccination is carried out in the spring on last year's escape, after the start of sap flow. In summer, it is possible to plant a pine tree on a branch of the current season.
Diseases and pests
Japanese pine, despite its unpretentious care and longevity, is susceptible to pest attacks, so timely preventive maintenance is important.
The appearance of a plant on the needles is a sign of pine hermes. As a therapeutic measure, Japanese pine is treated with Actellik.
Aphids are capable of destroying green plants within a short period of time. Small pests emit toxic substances that lead to the falling of the needles and the death of the tree. To destroy aphids, use a solution of Karbofos, spraying the plant three times a month.
In the springtime, the scale insect attacks the Japanese pine. Its larvae suck the juice from the needles, so it turns yellow and falls off. To destroy the pest, the tree is irrigated with Akarin solution.
A symptom of cancer in Japanese pine is a change in the color of the needles to dark red. Gradually, the plant dies: the branches fall off, the tree dries up. For the prevention of the disease, pine is periodically treated with the drug "Tsinebom".
Japanese pine is a very decorative tree that can be grown in regions with rocky or clay soil, in cities with frosty winters. The plant is unpretentious, care consists in watering and taking preventive measures against parasites and diseases. The possibility of forming the crown allows the use of Japanese pine in landscape design